Airport Automated Control Tower (TWR)

General characteristics

CharacteristicsValue (range)
Number of radar navigation information sourcesUp to 6
Number of ATCS to be attachedUp to 3
Speed of data interchange with existing and prospective ATCS using leased communication lines with band from 0,3 up to 3.4 kHzNot less than 9600 bit/s
Number of workplaces of operational control3
Automatic simultaneous guidance of aerial objects in the airfield area with radios of 75 kmNot less than 100
Provisions of control instructions related to guided aerial within limits: a) by range b) by altitude c) by speed400 km 30 km 3600 km/h
Time of initial switching onNot more than 5 min.
Restart time for one component of TWRNot more than 2 min.
The number of channels on which 24-hour recording, storage and playback of voice information is carried24 (duplicated)
The storage time of air situation and voice information: a) for a system without replaceable information recording medium; b) for system with replaceable recorder of the information.Not less than 5 days
Not less than 30 days
Radio-stations control system initial switching on timeNot more than 30 sec.
Radio-stations control system restart timeNot more than 3 sec
Operation time for main components of TWR from the uninterpretable power sources for each consumerNot less than 15 min.
Number of command radiations controlled form automatic working position6

GCA system is to be installed to improve the accuracy, reliability, noise immunity of radar information, as well as for exclusion of the human operator from the process of information retrieval, and also for the means of electronic support of aerodrome it shall be installed:
  1. Conjunction device for ADF (automatic direction finder);
  2. Conjunction device for RSBN-4N (VOR/DME);
  3. The automatic data retrieval device from the omnidirectional radar P-37 (extractor);
  4. The automatic data retrieval device from the omnidirectional radar P-18 (P-19) (extractor);
  5. Conjunction device for PRV (height-finder extractor).
Provision of information by means of the aerodrome electronic support to working positions of operational control group are carried out via the physical link (a link and modems to be provided).

Main functions of aerodrome TWR

  • Automatic receipt, processing and displaying of information from omnidirectional surveillance radars (such as P-18, P-37, P-19), RSP-10MN-1 (RSP-6М2, RSP-10) (surveillance and approach), RSBN-4N, ARP-11 (ARP-75, ARP-97) in compliance with requirements of governing documents;
  • Automatic receipt, processing and displaying of information from PRV-16 (13);
  • Performing of calculation tasks to ensure takeoffs (landings), and control of aircraft in the terminal area;
  • Automatic conflict alerts;
  • Display of planned (subject to its formalization), meteorological and reference (special actions in flight, etc.) information;
  • Automatic recording of information (objective control) on the traffic situation, the action of operational control at workstations and the voice data through the communication channels;
  • Automated preparation of the records of the objective control;
  • Control of VHF radios, speakerphone and telephony;
  • Transfer instructions to the crews of the aircraft via the NDB channel;
  • Listening to hands-free channels and communications in the aerial radio networks;
  • Auto power on of "emergency" radio on batteries;
  • Remote control of emergency braking device;
  • Displaying information about the state of communication channels, radars and automation means;
  • Remote control and supervision of the work of radio navigation and airfield lighting equipment.
Mean time between failures -not less than 1000 hours, the mean time to repair — not more than 40 minutes, subject to the availability of SPTA.
Service life -15 years or 80,000 hours.

The composition and designation the main systems

GCA equipment includes:
  1. Aerodrome surveillance radar (ASR) equipment -1 (one) set, including below systems and devices:
    • Antenna-feeder system;
    • Antenna rotation system;
    • Transmitting system:
      • PSR transmitting device;
      • SSR transiting device;
    • Transmitter of the SSR main channel;
    • Transmitter of the SSR suppression channel:
      • Power supply unit;
      • PSR and SSR transmitters control unit;
    • Receiving system:
      • PSR receiver subunit;
      • SSR main channel receiver subunit (1090MHz);
      • SSR suppression channel receiver subunit (1090MHz);
      • SSR main channel receiver subunit (740MHz);
      • SSR suppression channel receiver subunit (740MHz);
    • Workstation of ASR (surveillance);
    • Aviation VHF (VHF/UHF) band 10 W – 2 sets.
  2. Equipment of Precision Approach Radar (PAR) – 2 (two) kits in each:
    • Antenna-waveguide system
    • Antenna drive system and control over antenna tilt
    • PAR transmitter
    • PAR working position
    • Aviation UHW (VHF/UHF) range 10W-kit
  3. Power supply system
    • Diesel electric set – 2 sets
    • Power switchboard
    • Source of undisputable power (UPS)
  4. System of temperature conditions control
  5. End means of communications (Telephone and Speakerphone)
  6. SPTE for RSP equipment (For usage period of 3 (three) years)
  7. Equipment of airport automated control tower (TWR) consists of:
    • Modern working positions WP
    • Multichannel Speaker and Telephone communication hardware
    • Aviation VHF (VHF/UHF) station (frequency range 118-136.975; 220-399.975MHz) with receiver output of 50 W – 6 (six) sets;
    • SPTE set for TWR (Usage period of 3(three) years)
For enhancement of efficiency over flight control and safety of the flight in the airport (responsibility, operational) area TWR and airdrome electronic support are equipped with automated hardware.
At the TWR modernized WPs are installed:
  • Ground controller WP-mounted in the panel, with two LCD displays (one of them displaying – joint information, from all of the surveillance radars, another one – Flight Data Plan (in the case of its formalization))
  • Approach controller WP -mounted in the panel, with tow LCD displays (one of them displaying-joint information, from all of the surveillance radars, another one-instrument landing information)
  • Flight director WP, mounted in the panel, with two LCD displays (one of them displaying-joint information, from all of the surveillance radars, another one-instrument landing information)
Typical composition of each WP, in the TWR complex is following:
  • Processing unit (PU) – 2 units;
  • Colorful liquid crystal display of high resolution – 2 units;
  • Keyboard and “mouse”;
  • Panel of remote control (Flight Director WP, Ground controller WP);
  • Manipulator for rotation of antenna system of course and glide path, (only for Ground Controller WP, Approach Controller WP);
  • Radio station control system;
  • Command operational communication hardware (COCH)
  • System of uninterruptable power supply (UPS) that consisting of three sources of uninterruptable power supply of the Smart UPS type
All of the (PU) hardware deployed in the industrial chassis of Industrial Computer Advantech and includes:
  • Single board industrial computer of Advantech type with processor, adapters SBGA, LAN and RAM
  • Hard drive emulator (reprogrammed memory (DiskOnModule)
  • Four channeled communications adapter HDLC 4.
Each panel of WP is equipped with the Command operational communication hardware (COCH) and control of ultra-short-band station hardware.

VHF station hardware provides:

  • Choice for the broadcast of one out of five radio stations. Four-wire circuit connects radio stations. Turn on of transmitter is performed via central point of output transformer by earthing or permanent voltage -27V, or by the frequency of 2040 Hz, which is passed to the line with voice signal.
  • Permanent listening in of radio station receiver, which is set to the emergency frequency;
  • Connection of NDB (runway-localizing beacon) transmitter and transmission of voice data via it;
  • Connection for simultaneous listening in of 2 receivers from 2 groups (one per each 4 receivers in each group)
For objective control purposes modernized digital documentation systems are installed at the TWR:
  • Voice data recording hardware
  • Radar data recording device
  • WP of synchronized data playback
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